Working Papers

JCCTRP Working Paper: Regional Planning and Climate Change Mitigation in California (2020)

Authors: Genevieve Giuliano, Sang-O Kim and Zakhary Mallet

Author Affiliation: METRANS Transportation Center & University of Southern California

Publication Date: May 2020

Abstract: This working paper presents an overview of regional planning and climate change mitigation in California. This paper is motivated by the unique success of California in developing and implementing a comprehensive program of policies to address global climate change. It traces the history of environmental regulation in California and shows how climate change policy is the outgrowth of decades of increasingly stringent and broad environmental policy. This paper is also motivated by JCCTRP’s interest in the role of models. It shows how regional transportation modeling plays a critical role in meeting air pollution reduction targets, and how models can be used to achieve plans that meet the targets. The paper first presents the history of air quality regulation with focus on mobile sources. This is followed by a description of how air quality regulations have transitioned into more comprehensive greenhouse gas regulations in the 2000s with the introduction of Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, also known as “AB32”. The final section describes how federal and state regulation have affected regional transportation planning and discusses the role of models in the planning process. The paper closes with conclusions and some observations on what can be learned from California.

 

JCCTRP Working Paper: Modeling Increased Electric Vehicle Charging Demand in Quebec (2019)

Authors: Samuel Forget Lord (IQCarbone), Jonathan Dowds (University of Vermont), Mark Purdon (UQAM/IQCarbone), Olivier Bahn, (GERAD & HEC Montreal) and Lisa Aultman-Hall (University of Vermont)

Publication Date: December 2019

Abstract: The interactions between electric vehicle charging and renewable power generation are an important consideration for any jurisdiction seeking to use increased electric vehicle penetration as strategy to reduce greenhouse (GHG) emission in the transportation sector. This paper describes a model for developing highly-resolved, time-of-day specific charging demand from travel survey data that is consistent with real-world driving patterns and applied to Quebec. Since vehicle charging timing is dependent on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) availability, three EVSE scenarios are considered: 1) home-only, 2) home and workplace only, 3) universal EVSE. The modeling described here provides a valuable approach for understanding the interactions between power grid operation and demand profiles while exploring a range of assumptions about EVSE availability and charging behaviors. All EVSE scenarios result in increased peak demand that could decrease electricity net export and then, contribute to an increase of generation by non-renewable generating sources. This indicates that pricing or other mechanisms that influence charging decisions could result in lower cost and lower emissions outcomes. Results are discussed in light of the renewable energy resources available in Quebec and emerging low-carbon transportation policies.

 

JCCTRP Working Paper: Climate and Transportation Policy Sequencing in California and Quebec (2019)

Authors: Mark Purdon (ESG-UQAM), Genevieve Giuliano (USC), Julie Witcover (UC Davis), Colin Murphy (UC Davis), Sonya Ziaja (CPUC), Colleen Kaiser (York U), Mark Winfield (York U), Charles Séguin (ESG-UQAM), Jacques Papy (UQAM), Sang-O Kim (USC), Louis-Charles Coderre (UMontréal), Myriam Goulet (UQAM), and Lew Fulton (UC Davis)

Publication Date: October 2019

Abstract: In this working paper we discuss the California-Quebec emissions trading system and its relationship with so-called “complementary policies” in the transportation sector. Quebec remains, after the brief involvement of the province of Ontario in 2018, the sole jurisdiction linked to California through an emissions trading system. But questions remain whether the complexities of California’s climate policies might limit their effective replication elsewhere. The challenge is that striving for efficient and flexible regulations that account for policy interaction and sequencing requires significant technical resources, as governments often take on a larger role in designing policy components for specific sectors of the economy. While outstanding challenges remain in the transport sector in both jurisdictions, we find that many of the policies observed in California’s transportation sector have been adopted by the Quebec and Canadian federal government in a manner that alleviates some concerns about replicability. The sequence by which so-called complementary transport policies have been introduced is also more complex than reported in other studies. At the Quebec and the Canadian federal government, low-carbon transport policies have both preceded and succeeded efforts to put an economy-wide price on GHG emissions. These findings point to the possibility of replicating California’s suite of climate policies in a sequential manner that generates political benefits in terms of reduced and distributed costs while alleviating concerns about free-ridership. We conclude with a discussion about coordinating emissions trading and complementary policies amongst linked jurisdictions. 

 

JCCTRP Working Paper: Overview of Climate, Energy and Transport Policy in Quebec (2019)

Authors: Louis-Charles Coderre (UMontréal), Myriam Goulet (UQAM) and Mark Purdon (UQAM)

Publication Date: June 2019

Abstract: This working paper presents an overview of Quebec energy, transportation and climate change mitigation policies. Special attention is given to institutional frameworks and key government actors at different levels of government. This includes a review of major policies of the Canadian federal and provincial governments as well as that of the City of Montreal, the largest urban agglomeration in the province. The overview illustrates the complex interactions between institutions and policy actors in Quebec, Canada as well as North America. We also review greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets and assess progress at different governance scales. This includes assessment of the current state of measures adopted or planned by policy actors at various scales as well as the investments considered, in particular concerning carbon pricing and regulations, the electrification of transport and investments in infrastructure and public transport. This working paper also reviews transport and energy system modeling efforts and the importance of models in the policy process. A special focus is given to Quebec’s role as a major producer of clean energy in the northeastern part of North America, where Hydro-Québec has long been a supplier of hydroelectricity.

 

JCCTRP Working Paper: Decarbonizing Road Transportation in Ontario (2018)

Author: Colleen Kaiser, PhD candidate at York University (Ontario)

Publication Date: November 2018

Abstract: This working paper on private road transport uses two broad categories to organize decarbonization efforts in the province of Ontario: 1) cleaner vehicles and 2) transportation demand management. These categories represent the two key objectives of policies and mechanisms to develop a low-carbon transport system. 1) Reduce greenhouse gas emissions from passenger cars, and 2) reduce the number of vehicles on the road. Establishing an economy-wide carbon price supports these specific efforts.